Having an extradition treaty means that there is an established way to hand over criminals/suspects to a country requesting extradition. We provide https://forums.ppsspp.org/member.php?action=profile&uid=2587999 offshore banking, company and asset protection strategies to protect what’s yours. But they also help search for missing persons, especially those tied to kidnapping and human trafficking cases. Modification to apply a 60 day period is common and has been included,for example, in extradition agreements with Brazil, Chile, Hungary, Mexico,Paraguay, South Korea, the United States and Venezuela. Indonesia, home to the popular Bali, is a favourite among expats and has a very fast growing economy. In a communication received on 18 January 2008, the Government of Spain informed the Secretary General of the following. To become a ghost is much harder than you might think. Previously, Venezuela only had a statutory bar to the extradition of nationals. 97 318 “If extradition is refused solely on the basis of the nationality of the person sought, the Requested State shall, at the request of the Requesting State, submit the case to its authorities for prosecution”; Austrian Extradition Treaty, art. And when you die it will pass quietly, unnoticed and untaxed to your heirs. Many of these journals are the leading academic publications in their fields and together they form one of the most valuable and comprehensive bodies of research available today. The duties of citizens in the event of serious risk, catastrophe or public calamity may be regulated by law. Read more: New surveillance law: German police allowed to hack smartphones. Part 1 of the Extradition Act 2003 “the Act” provides the domestic legal basis for extradition from the UK to EU Member States and Gibraltar under the arrangements of Title VII of the EU UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement “the TCA”;. Mauritania, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,. For foreign countries, the extradition process is regulated by treaty and conducted between the federal government of the United States and the government of a foreign country. Nonetheless, the number of fugitives extradited and currently detained at U. China’s ‘zero COVID’ enforcement army faces unpaid wages and job losses. In some cases a fugitive may waive the hearing process. Ethiopia and Botswana are two star economies of east Africa. In fact, Brazil is one of the easiest places to become a citizen through naturalisation, so perhaps that is also something to consider. Stofficer2 9 points10 points11 points 5 months ago 0 children. Even though the decision of the extradition magistrate cannot be appealed, the habeas corpus determination by the district court is subject to appeal to the corresponding circuit court.
An Act to amend and consolidate the Law relating to the extradition of criminals and for matters connected therewith and incidental thereto. Extradition enables countries to apprehend fugitives and other wanted criminals involved in crimes such as terrorism, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, and cybercrime even if those fugitives are hiding halfway around the world—provided they are hiding in a country with which the first country has an extradition treaty. Whether a “substantial measure” of the requested person’s “relevant activity” occurred in the UK will usually be exclusively a question of fact, which will be determined by the court. Aircraft Carriers by Country. This created a special law that also allows the extradition of German citizens. Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia and. Get rid of and delete old emails and accounts as well as old forums and social media accounts. Extradition treaties also outline the process of requesting and processing an extradition between the two countries. The majority of Red Notices are restricted to law enforcement use only but, in some cases, where the public’s help is needed to locate an individual, a public extract of the Red Notice is published to the website. The deal will also call for stronger criminal sanctions and accountability for bankers and those involved in moving illicit cash through the international system. The following is a list of seven different non extradition countries to consider. However, there are a number of ways that they can still bring the person to justice. Read more here about FATCA and CFC laws.
This is a short preview of the document. Cl Álvaro Arévalo Cunich Subdirector de Asuntos Jurídicos Email:. Will the Minister of State also examine the proposed new section 156A in section 9l of the Bill. US Foreign Assistance. We use some essential cookies to make this website work. Countries like Somalia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan, and Djibouti have never had an extradition treaty with any other nation. Masood, 22, is wanted by Pakistani authorities for terrorism offences. The same principle applies to any extradition request non EU request/TaCA warrant. The UKCA at the Home Office forwards extradition requests that have been prepared by the prosecuting authorities in England and Wales and Northern Ireland e. At INTERPOL, it aims to facilitate international police cooperation even where diplomatic relations do not exist between particular countries. The refusal to extradite citizens is known as the Continental system because by the end of the 19th century, it was common practice amongst Continental states. It is also not a part of the EU which means it offers a certain degree of privacy. Drawing on our network, we are able to work in tandem with lawyers in requesting states to obtain evidence to resist extradition or to advocate for alternatives such as mutual legal assistance or inter state prisoner transfer. The National Crime Agency NCA is the central authority for the purpose of receiving Part 1 extradition requests from EU Member States and the UK Central Authority UKCA in the Home Office is the central authority for receiving Part 2 extradition requests from the rest of the world. Unless the fugitive waives his or her right to a hearing, the court will hold a hearing pursuant to 18 U. 3 The Minister may not order temporary surrender under subsection 1 unless the extradition partner gives an assurance that the person will remain in custody while temporarily surrendered to the extradition partner and. In fact, Brazil is one of the easiest places to become a citizen through naturalisation, so perhaps that is also something to consider. They are completely legal and prudent for anyone who wants freedom from the whims of any one particular government—especially a government that is desperate, bankrupt and totally out of control.
He was known to have used at least four aliases during his time as on the run, and was also known to have had his tattoos removed in a bid to avoid detection. List the cookies that you are using on the website here. If they blow the right whistles. South Africa must now indicate any possible reservations. In the years following the creation of the American initial lists, other law enforcement agencies around the world, representing all jurisdictional levels, have issued their own lists of most wanted fugitives. US Foreign Assistance. Crimes committed by Israeli citizens abroad could be prosecuted in Israel. US Foreign Assistance. Unlike its neighbours, Serbia and Croatia, Montenegro does not have an extradition treaty with the US. Don’t use any type of digital communication especially initially as it is likely that there will accounts open that you forgot about and will track you to where you’re at. In other cases, it is because the UK does not consider the country to have an adequate legal system for dealing with extradited individuals. Each state is free to prescribe when and how an extradition request will be acted on and the procedures of arrest and surrender of the requested individual. OIA’s case closure rate has not kept pace with the number of new cases, resulting in a pending caseload 2 that has increased over 100 percent since 1990. US Foreign Assistance. There is not a shred of historical evidence that the US economy needs a 2. When considering a non extradition country, it is important to understand that the US may still seek to extradite you depending on the facts and circumstances of your situation — but you can use certain strategies to bolster your position. The Government of Antigua and Barbuda GOAB is concerned overthe increasing domestic use of crack cocaine and drugrelatedviolence. Post extradition officers should identify the hostcountry officials responsible for extradition cases and seek to establishcordial working relationships. Any persons subject to a EAW have the right of access to a lawyer in the executing Member State upon arrest pursuant to the EAW. Gulf countries like Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Jordan, Lebanon, and the United Arab Emirates do not have extradition treaties with the US. Wanted persons diffusions published per year.
However, if you are able to overlook these drawbacks and abide by the social rules, you may find it to be a decent place to stay for a while. By Leila Nadya Sadat and Akila Radhakrishnan. In conclusion, if part of a person’s expatriation plan is to avoid any potential extradition to the United States, it is important to make sure that the Taxpayer lands in a non extradition country. Smith and Trial Attorney Rebecca A. Famous examples include the extradition dispute with Canada on Charles Ng. To take ill: to suddenly become ill. 1 place for Ghana News. The Review originally was intended as a forum for the faculty of the Law Department to publish their legal scholarship. 2011 Commonwealth Scheme Relating to Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters ‘Harare Scheme’. An attorney can help you understand what’s typically expected of you in terms of appearances and the repercussions for not showing up. For example, countries like Brazil, Venezuela, and Cuba are known to not extradite their citizens no matter what. To assess whether such risk exists, all circumstances of the case need to be taken into account. Although these rights are explicitly provided in Law 302/2004 with respect to the European arrest warrant, they apply accordingly to all extradition procedures, because the common law regarding the arrest warrant is the Romanian Criminal Procedure Code, which also specifies the same rights.
Extradition law is the formal process by which a fugitive found in the one country is surrendered to another country or state for trial, punishment, or rehabilitation. Because of this, evidence of ties to the UK and their family life here can be particularly important. If the offence is punishable with imprisonment for at least three years and may be seen as an action as mentioned in the regulations to section 7 third subsection, this fact must be stated. It is a rather pleasant place for a refuge destination. Knowingly and without lawful authority, making or having in possession any instrument, tool, or machine adopted and intended for the counterfeiting of money, whether coin or paper. In July 2000, El Salvador took a very important step to remove a serious obstacle to extradition by enacting a constitutional amendment to permit the extradition of Salvadoran nationals. “There I was, surfing the wave of waves, next moment wiped out, board broken, rocks reefs everywhere,” a reflective Zhu tweeted on Nov 8. US Foreign Assistance. In fact, Brazil is one of the easiest places to become a citizen through naturalisation, so perhaps that is also something to consider. Extradition procedures are further complicated by unreasonable delays and variance in documentary requirements of foreign countries. Marginal note:Time limits. A no extradition country is a state that does not extradite its own citizens to another country. He also previously told the Washington Post that Bryan Kohberger is “willing to waive because he’s looking forward to being exonerated. There is a misconception that one has to always go to some unknown hellhole at the ends of the earth to escape, however, there are many great places to choose from where you would be unlikely to run the risk of extradition. Home Office minister Kevin Foster said the UK continues to cooperate with the EU on new arrangements for law enforcement and security. US Foreign Assistance. He therefore rejected the minority opinion that called for interpreting the term “Israeli national” in the Extradition Law as a national who maintains a real linkage with the State of Israel, a condition that did not apply to Sheinbein Id. However, due to the constraints of federalism, any conditions on the extradition accepted by the federal government—such as not to impose the death penalty—are not binding on individual states. 24 so lawmakers can know exactly what and how much the U. But neither Netflix nor Cinemark has actually disclosed Red Notice’s box office performance — an omission that highlights just how nontraditional Netflix movies are. Council of Europe 1957 European Convention on Extradition ECE. At the time of our review, OIA had one attorney assigned to the Fugitive Unit. For example, while some countries such as Vietnam and the Marshall Islands do not have formal agreements with the United states involving extradition, both of these countries have considered and agreed to extradition in certain limited situations. Fisher is wanted for allegedly killing his wife and two young children and then blowing up the house in which they all lived in Scottsdale, Arizona in April of 2001. C Offenses and salient facts: The offenses with which the fugitive has been charged or of which he or she has been convicted, along with the facts of the case in brief. Government can hurt you.
US Foreign Assistance. As novas tendências do direito extradicional ‘New Trends in Extradition Law’, 2nd edn. He is a CFA charterholder. OpenDocumentandof=THEMES%5CDEATH +. As we mentioned previously, there is a difference between being in a place which has no extradition treaty and not being extradited. The country has entered into treaties with the United States of America and it is also a party to the Organization of American States extradition treaty OAS. The ROC summarizes the evidence available to the extradition partner for use in the hearing. Kosovo, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Macedonia, Madagascar, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands,. Here are examples of cases where our team has successfully removed Interpol Red Notices from our clients. Our law firm can help you get in the red notice removed from the website. US Foreign Assistance. US Foreign Assistance. Within the application of the EAW, reciprocity, specialty and the political offence exception do not need to be assessed as the member states to the EAW concurred to observe these principles.
Tags:extradition, hong kong,. The fact that the French government and others will put an end to the surrender of nationals to the UK under the new cooperation agreement is arguably a significant step backwards and shows that civil law jurisdictions retain a strong attachment to the protection of their citizens from extradition, even in their relations with countries who share equivalent or even higher human rights standards. We have seen several reports in the past about members of grooming gangs and domestic violence suspects who reached Pakistan while out on bail and who were living lavishly here, while their victims were denied justice. There are many other countries with no extradition treaty. Fraudulent misappropriations and fraud. After a person has been brought back to this State by or after waiver of extradition proceedings, the person may be tried in this State for other crimes which the person may be charged with having committed here as well as that specified in the requisition for extradition. In 1989, the headquarters of Interpol was moved to the city of Lyon France, where it is still located. Once you have a comprehensive list, you can select your ideal location from there based on your personal preferences and situational requirements. Any number of infringements can have the government after you. But, even if the Taxpayer is in a non extradition country — there is the potential for the US government to still seek extradition and for the foreign country to still agree to extradite you to the United States — which is why it is important to pick a country in which the Taxpayer is comfortable and can develop ties, thereby limiting the chance of extradition. The request for provisional arrest by the requesting State. D in Nova Scotia, British Columbia, Yukon and the Northwest Territories, the Supreme Court, and in Nunavut, the Nunavut Court of Justice; and. Let us know if you need help in putting together an offshore protection solution. Asked for advice on how to claim asylum, the smuggler said in social media messages: ‘You have to invent a reason why you’re here. You may know these islands for the beautiful blue water that you see in postcards, but the economy has more things going for it than just tourism. However, burglary and arson were listed as eligible offenses, so anyone suspected of those crimes could be apprehended by Canadian officials and handed over to U. Angela Luisa Espinoza. He added that he remained in the Bahamas, which became his full time residence last year. The largest number of fugitives have been extradited from the UAE 19, followed by the US nine. A, Ukraine, Poland, Belarus, Libya. CT:CON 952; 11 15 2022. The family patriarch is weighing his options in case the accusations his son Kendall made in the press conference at the end of season two are investigated, and flying somewhere without an extradition treaty could put him beyond the reach of American authorities. San Diego is wanted for his alleged involvement in two bombings in the San Francisco, California, area. Nationals; Conspiracy to Murder U. The King may decide that the Act will be in force between some of the Nordic states, or just for Nordic or Nordic European arrest warrants. Even in nations with treaties in place, geopolitical issues or legal concerns can lead to disputes over extradition.
The Department of Justice is the Central Authority on extradition matters. Subject to the law of the executing State this waiving of the specialty is irrevocable. The United Kingdom does not have extradition treaties with a number of countries, including Afghanistan, Algeria, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, North Korea, Somalia, and Syria. The Metropolitan Police officers were issued instructions that came to be known as the Peelian Principles—though they may have been devised by Rowan and Mayne. Charged with: Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organization RICO; Interstate Transportation in Aid of Racketeering; Conspiracy to Murder Persons in a Foreign CountryThe Rewards For Justice Program, United States Department of State, is offering a reward of up to $5 million. However, that does not mean those countries would welcome people in search of “safe havens”. Can humanity’s new giant leap into space succeed. The Secretary of State has to make a decision within 2 months of the day the case is sent, otherwise the person may apply to be discharged. If there is an extradition agreement in place and a person commits a crime and then hightails it overseas — and the US government finds you — they can work with the foreign government in order to get the person back to the United States by way of extradition. The extradition applies only to such offences which are mentioned in the treaty. Why morning light is so crucial to your health. The district court determines in a decision whether the conditions for surrender have been fulfilled. The strong deformation of the RBCs would probably lead the collective protein diffusion more relevant. There are many variations and extremes that this can all take. A wanted person who is held on remand because of the arrest warrant, must be released when the time limits for surrender in the first and second subsection have expired. For this purpose, the officers who are holding you must give you a written Letter of Rights explaining your rights in the EAW process. L 98 43, 1998 WL 655708 S. Our extradition framework is unrelated to trade arrangements and protects people from extradition to any country if it would breach their human rights. There are several countries with a high production of counterfeit drugs, the majority of which are in Asia. If you have information on anyone you see in a Red or Yellow Notice on this website, you should either. The person being held while awaiting extradition is required to be informed of their rights relating to the issuance and service of a warrant of extradition. Absent a formal treaty, extraditing a person is much more difficult, but it’s certainly not impossible. The ICPC was thus revived, though the loss or destruction of all its prewar records required that it be completely reorganized. Mostafa graduated from a university in California with a bachelor’s degree in economics. ASEAN is a dynamic economic region in Asia. Jordan and Lebanon are two other Middle Eastern nations with no extradition treaties. However, certain countries on the continent are bustling with economic opportunities. Vincent Bajinya aka Vincent Brown. Department of State and other government agencies.
The footballer’s case raises important questions about how this arrest was able to take place. US Foreign Assistance. If you do decide to move to a Gulf country, just make sure you don’t take an Israeli passport with you. The better proposition is rather that international treaties are careful to leave states with an option to refuse the extradition of nationals, and that civil law states have, for the most part, remained faithful to the rule against the extradition of nationals. That’s what all these operations boil down to,” Wrong said. All told, the United States has extradition treaties with 107 countries worldwide. They may also be able to try them in absentia. Arrest of the wanted subject: when a requesting party seeks to extradite a fugitive, in many cases, the fugitive in question flees the country to another in hopes of evading his prosecution and punishment. This means that a person suspected of or convicted of a crime in the U. Extradition treaties or subsequent diplomatic correspondence often include language providing that such criteria should not be taken into account when checking if the crime is one in the country from which extradition should apply. Therefore, international agreements may, in theory, provide otherwise and allow the French government to grant extradition requests in respect of French citizens. Canada, Mexico and Panama are also signatories to the Inter American Convention. Expatriation is the act of leaving one’s country of origin in order to live in another country. For example, Morocco is on the list of non extradition countries to consider — since you can expatriate and then seek a Residence by Investment Golden Visa which can lead to citizenship and a reduced chance of extradition. Doug Casey: Like the Romans, we’re supposedly ruled by laws, not by men. The Office of Website Management, Bureau of Public Affairs, manages this site as a portal for information from the U. Completed requests may be sent by the Central Authority of the requesting Party to the following address. Mr Fitzgerald accepted that there is a strong presumption in the case of Council of Europe states that they will comply with their Article 3 obligations and that, in order to rebut the presumption, “clear and cogent evidence” is needed. Had transferred from Mexico in 2017, is the most high profile criminal extradited in recent history. More than 500 families evacuated from Caia due to threat of floods Rádio Moçambique. The UK will, as a matter of policy, extradite its own nationals, providing no bars to extradition apply. Never agreed to the treaty, and because the U. The terms and conditions vary. 54 CISA, and applicable in all cases, is that of the trial having been finally disposed of in one of the Member States. In Part 2 cases, should the Judge decide to send the case to the Secretary of State i. Koh has been on the run for almost a decade. B India has Extradition Treaties with the USA 1999, Canada 1987, Britain 1993 and has Extradition Arrangements with Italy 2003 and Australia 1971. Any person who is arrested in this state and who is charged with having committed a crime in another state or alleged to have escaped from confinement or broken the terms of his bail, probation or parole may waive the issuance and service of the warrant provided for in sections 13 3847 and 13 3848 and all other procedures incidental to extradition proceedings by executing or subscribing in the presence of a judge of a court of record within this state a writing which states that he consents to return to the demanding state, except that before the waiver is executed or subscribed to by the person it is the duty of the judge to inform the person of his right to the issuance or service of a warrant of extradition, the right to contest extradition by habeas corpus as provided in section 13 3850 and the right to bail as provided in section 13 3856.
Whether under the EAW or otherwise, the first step taken is usually for an extradition request to be converted into an arrest warrant by either the National Crime Agency or UK Central Authority. Its role is to enable police around the world to work together to make the world a safer place. To locate a missing person. B “extradition” means the delivering up of a person by one State to another as provided by treaty, convention or national legislation. There is not a shred of historical evidence that the US economy needs a 2. International extradition is a legal process by which one country the requesting country may seek from another country the requested country the surrender of a person who is wanted for prosecution, or to serve a sentence following conviction, for a criminal offense. But he was notseriously injured, and the European court said Thursday in itsdecision that Einhorn was fit to travel. If from the examination before the judge it appears that the person held pursuant to either of the two preceding sections is the person charged with having committed the crime alleged and, except in cases arising under § 19. The Germany USA Extradition Treaty and the EU USA Agreement. They are completely legal and prudent for anyone who wants freedom from the whims of any one particular government—especially a government that is desperate, bankrupt and totally out of control. To clarify the above point, if a person in the United States crosses the borders of the United States to go to another country, then that person has crossed a federal border, and federal law would apply in addition to state law. Largest Air Forces in the World. If two states that are party to a bilateral listextradition treaty are also party to a multilateral convention, themultilateral convention will supplement the list treaty to make extraditablethe offense that is the subject of the convention. Leaving no trace and clues behind will make them less able to track you down and find you. Call our West End office on 020 7467 5757. While these countries offer safe haven for criminals, they also provide a refuge for those who are fleeing political persecution.
“Most of us tend not to regard taxation as theft, yet, that’s exactly what it is. B declare invalid or unlawful, quash, set aside, set aside and refer back for determination in accordance with any directions that it considers appropriate, prohibit or restrain the decision of the Minister referred to in subsection 1. US Foreign Assistance. These courts may impose certain restrictions on extradition, or prevent it altogether, if for instance they deem the accusations to be based on dubious evidence, or evidence obtained from torture, or if they believe that the defendant will not be granted a fair trial on arrival, or will be subject to cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment if extradited. 5 million people, its own currency the Somaliland Shilling, and a working government that holds elections. The government has repeatedly stated that it remains “committed to seeking a balanced and reciprocal agreement in this area”, failing which “the UK has well developed and well rehearsed plans in place to transition cooperation with EU Member States to alternative, non EU arrangements by the end of the Transition Period, where available. Even when removed by INTERPOL, Red Notices often remain active in national databases. Philippine Central Authority. US Foreign Assistance. He writes about economics, offshore banking, second passports, value investing in crisis markets, geopolitics, and surviving a financial collapse, among other topics. Cherif Bassiouni, however, has posited that, at least with regard to international crimes, it is not only a rule of customary international law but a jus cogens principle. Government would almost certainly cancel your U. So fleeing to China isn’t an option, unless you were already a citizen. Changes introduced as a consequence of the UK exiting EU extradition arrangements and the introduction of new arrangements, new legislation on provisional arrests introduced. Or perhaps fly to a country that has a stable law and order ecosystem. There is a difference between having no extradition treaty and not extraditing a citizen. A Lisbon court in November refused a U. As of February 2001, the United States had extradition treaties with 109 countries. If you were to come up with a punchline to a joke about the Monitor, that would probably be it. If you’ve seen the writing on the wall, like me, you know that gold could soon hit $10,000 per ounce. Notice of application for leave to appeal must be sought within 14 days of extradition being ordered by the Secretary of State or discharge being ordered by the Secretary of State. In the second incident, again targeting the same person, this time he placed a bomb on the roof of a vehicle, leaving three people seriously injured.
Extradition shall not be granted when the person sought has been convicted or acquitted in the Requested State for the offense for which extradition is requested. Making the Most of Your Personal Freedom and Financial Opportunity Around the World. 3193 Receiving Agent’s Authority over Offenders. Extradition is pretty rare but there are lots of things that must be considered. This guide gives you an in depth knowledge of how Interpol’s Red Notices work, including the Interpol Red Notice removal process, subjects of Interpol Red Notices, the procedure followed when issuing Red Notices, and more. A Yellow Notice is a global police alert for a missing person. Introduced in 2004, the European Arrest Warrant requires any EU member state to send a criminal suspect to the country that issued the warrant for trial, or to enforce the completion of a jail sentence. Where a request for provisional arrest is accepted, the person will usually be arrested in the requested state before extradition papers are formally submitted. It is regularly updated to reflect changes in law and practice. For example, in its instrument of ratification, deposited on 10 February 1986, France made the following declaration pursuant to Article 6: ‘Extradition shall be refused when the person sought had French nationality at the time of the alleged offence’. Mr Staurvik, aged 39, is thought to have killed Mr Radowslig in his home in the town of Mijdrecht on October 7, 2011. Click here to return to the main FAQ page. However, extradition treaties are not legally binding, so any country may choose to fulfill or deny any extradition request regardless of the existence or lack of a treaty or diplomatic relationship. It has been reported that the Foreign Secretary has said that restricting trade because of human rights abuses would mean missing out on “growth markets”. M:07881404347 T: 020 7965 7207 Monday Friday: 9:30am 6pm. A be detained or prosecuted, or have a sentence imposed or executed, or a disposition made or executed under the Young Offenders Act, chapter Y 1 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1985, in Canada in respect of an offence that is alleged to have been committed, or was committed, before surrender other than. South Africa has also designated Ireland, Zimbabwe, Namibia and the United Kingdom in terms of section 32 of the Extradition Act. Human Rights Team of unrivalled experienced lawyers provides consulting and all necessary assistance to the interested persons in order to challenge publication of the Red notice and to obtain it to be withdrawn, as well as to preempt its publication. European Judicial Network EJN – A network of practitioners from EU member states. Certified Record of the Case. You can check whether that country has an extradition treaty with your home country. For years, I have been raising awareness of the severe rule of law backsliding in Bulgaria which worsened after Boyko Borissov rose to power in 2009 see, for instance, here, here, and here. However, there is no information yet if that diplomatic assurance was issued by the Chinese Supreme Court. Jason Bourne is not the only one who might need a place to disappear.